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Laravel Interview Questions

An Overview of Laravel

Laravel is a free and open-source PHP framework that follows the model–view–controller design (MVC) pattern. It is a very popular PHP framework that reduces the cost of development and improves code quality. Using Laravel, developers can save hours of development time and reduce thousands of lines of code as compared to raw PHP. Because Laravel reuses the existing components of different frameworks in designing web applications, the outcome is more structured and pragmatic. Our massive collection of Laravel Interview Questions will definitely help you find a great job.

Development History

Lavarel was created by Taylor Otwell. Laravel's first beta version was released in June 2011. Laravel 2 was released in September 2011. Laravel 3 was released in February 2012. Laravel 4 was released in May 2013. Laravel 5 was released in February 2015. Majority of candidates are asked this information in Laravel Interview Questions.

Key points about Laravel

  • Source code hosted on GitHub and licensed under MIT License.
  • Most Starred PHP Framework for custom software development on Github.
  • Its ability to use all of the new features of PHP sets it apart.
  • Friendly online community
  • Detailed documentation

Latest Recommended Version: The current version is 5.7

Looking for a new job? Do not miss to read our Laravel Interview Questions.

Advantages of Laravel

  • Offers a rich set of functionalities.
  • Saves time.
  • Website built in Laravel is more scalable and secure.
  • Includes namespaces and interfaces that help to organize resources.
  • Provides a clean API.

We have put together all the popular Laravel interview questions and answers that will come in handy if you want to crack your next interview. This exhaustive list also contains Laravel 5 interview questions . These will be valuable in clearing job interviews as well as getting promotions at work.

Laravel Interview Questions and answers

Looking for a new job? Do not miss to read our Laravel Interview Questions and answers. Whether you are a fresher or an experienced, these questions and answers that can help you to crack your interview.

It is a free, powerful and open-source PHP framework that follows the model–view–controller design (MVC) pattern. It is a very popular PHP framework that reduces the cost of development and improves code quality.

The current version is 5.7. It released in August 2018.

Laravel installation steps:-

  • Download composer from https://getcomposer.org/download/ (if you don’t have a composer on your system)
  • Open cmd
  • Goto your htdocs folder.
  • C:\xampp\htdocs>composer create-project laravel/laravel projectname
    OR
    If you install some particular version, then you can use
    composer create-project laravel/laravel project name "5.6"

If you did not mention any particular version, then it will install with the latest version.

In Laravel middleware acts as a middleman between request and response. Middleware is a type of HTTP requests filtering mechanism.
Example: If a user is not authenticated and it is trying to access the dashboard then, the middleware will redirect that user to the login page.

Get ready to be answerable to this question. This is a favorite Laravel Interview Questions of many interviewers. Don’t let this question waste the opportunity. Read it twice.

Example

                                                

// Syntax
php artisan make:middleware MiddelwareName

// Example
php artisan make:middleware UserMiddelware

Now UserMiddelware.php file will create in app/Http/Middleware

These are the most important concepts used in Laravel

  • Blade Templating
  • Routing
  • Eloquent ORM
  • Middleware
  • Artisan(Command-Line Interface)
  • Security
  • In built Packages
  • Caching
  • Service Providers
  • Facades
  • Service Container

It is a type of version control for our database. It is allowing us to modify and share the application's database schema easily.

A migration file contains two methods up() and down(). up() is used to add new tables, columns, or indexes database and the down() is used to reverse the operations performed by the up method.

Example

                                                

You can generate a migration & its file with the help of make:migration .

Syntax : php artisan make:migration blog

A current_date_blog.php file will be create in database/migrations

Service providers is a central place of all entire Laravel application. A service provider is a powerful tool for managing class dependencies and performing dependency injection. Service provider tells Laravel to bind various components into the laravel's service container.

You can use php artisan make: provider ClientsServiceProvider artisan command to generate a service provider :

It has below listed functions in its file.

  • register function
  • boot function

It is the perfect solution for developing Laravel based microservices and fast APIs. It is a new project that is created by Taylor Otwell. It is built for microservices, not so much for user interfacing applications.

It has a simple installer like Laravel. You have to use this command to install lumen.
composer global require "laravel/lumen-installer=~1.0"

Laravel 5.7 has a few system requirements that are given below:-

  • It needs PHP >= 7.1.3
  • It needs OpenSSL PHP Extension
  • It needs PDO PHP Extension
  • It needs Mbstring PHP Extension
  • It needs Tokenizer PHP Extension
  • It needs XML PHP Extension
  • It needs Ctype PHP Extension
  • It needs JSON PHP Extension
  • It needs BCMath PHP Extension etc

For more detail you can visit : Laravel.com

We can add that particular URL or Route in $except variable. It is present in the app\Http\Middleware\VerifyCsrfToken.php file.

 

Point to be noted: The question is mostly asked in Laravel Interview Questions. Read it twice and analyze the answers.

 

Example

                                                

class VerifyCsrfToken extends BaseVerifier {
      protected $except = [
            'Pass here your URL',
      ];
}

Laravel uses "Blade Template Engine". It is a straightforward and powerful templating engine that is provided with Laravel.

The facade is a type of class which provides a static interface to services. Facade helps to access a service directly from the container. It is defined in the Illuminate\Support\Facades namespace. So that we can use it easily.

Example

                                                

use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Cache;

     Route::get('/cache', function () {

     return Cache::get('PutkeyNameHere');

});

We can create a helper file using Composer. Steps are given below:-

  • Please create a "app/helpers.php" file that is in app folder.
  • Add
    "files": [
        "app/helpers.php"
    ]

    in "autoload" variable.
  • Now update your composer.json with composer dump-autoload or composer update

It acts as a middleman between a request and a response. Middleware is a type of filtering mechanism used in Laravel application.

  • We can create middelware with
    php artisan make:middleware UsersMiddleware
  • Here "UsersMiddleware" is the name of Middleware. After this command a "UsersMiddleware.php" file created in app/Http/Middleware directory.
  • After that we have to register that middleware in kernel.php (available in app/Http directory) file in "$routeMiddleware" variable.
    'Users' => \App\Http\Middleware\UsersMiddleware::class,
  • Now we can call "Users" middleware where we need it like controller or route file.
  • We can use it in controller file like this.
    public function __construct() {
    $this->middleware('Users');
    }
  • In route file we can use like this.
    Route::group(['middleware' => 'Users'], function () {
    Route::get('/', 'HomeController@index');
    });

Artisan is a type of the "command line interface" using in Laravel. It provides lots of helpful commands for you while developing your application.

Laravel supports various artisan commands like

  • php artisan list
  • php artisan --version
  • php artisan help
  • php artisan make:controller
  • php artisan make:model
  • php artisan make:migration
  • php artisan make:middleware
  • php artisan make:auth
  • php artisan make:mail
  • php artisan make:provider etc

Service Container is a powerful tool which is used for managing class dependencies and performing dependency injection. It is also known as the IoC container.

Laravel provides a clean and straightforward API over the popular SwiftMailer library with drivers for SMTP, Mailgun, SparkPost, Amazon SES, and send an email. Laravel is allowing us to send Mail quickly through local or cloud-based services.

Below is an example with sending email through the mail().

It allows us to store our email messages in views files. For example, to organize your emails, you can create an email directory within your resources/views directory.

Example

                                                
public function sendEmail(Request $request, $id)
    {
        $user = Admin::find($id);

        Mail::send('emails.reminder', ['user' => $user], function ($m) use ($user) {
            $m->from('info@bestinterviewquestion.com', 'Reminder');

            $m->to($user->email, $user->name)->subject('Your Reminder!');
        });
    }

Laravel Auth is the process of identifying the user credentials with the database. Laravel managed it's with the help of sessions which take input parameters like username and password, for user identification. If the settings match then the user is said to be authenticated.

Auth is in-built functionality provided by Laravel; we have to configure.

We can add this functionality with php artisan make: auth

Auth is used to identifying the user credentials with the database.

 

Key point: Freshers, this is very important for you all. It is one of the Laravel interview questions and answers you should know. It is asked in many interviews.

 

  • Offers a rich set of functionalities like Eloquent ORM, Template Engine, Artisan, Migration system for databases, etc
  • Libraries & Modular
  • It supports MVC Architecture
  • Unit Testing
  • Security
  • Website built in Laravel is more scalable and secure.
  • It includes namespaces and interfaces that help to organize all resources.
  • Provides a clean API.

Laravel 5.7 supports new many features that are listed below:-

  • Nova
  • Email Verification
  • Notifications localization
  • Console Testing
  • URL Generator & callable
  • New pagination Link Customizations
  • Resources directory changes
  • Improved error messages for dynamic calls
  • New Dump Server
  • Guest user gates policies
  • Filesystem Read / Write Streams

For more details you can visit here laravel.com

Laravel Packages are a primary way of adding functionality to Laravel. Packages may have separate routes, controllers, views, and configuration specifically intended to enhance the application.

There are many packages are available nowadays also laravel has some official packages that are given below:-

  • Cashier
  • Dusk
  • Envoy
  • Passport
  • Socialite
  • Telescope etc

Validation is a most important thing while designing an application. It validates the incoming data. It uses ValidatesRequests trait which provides a convenient method to authenticate incoming HTTP requests with powerful validation rules.

Here are some Available Validation Rules in Laravel are listed:-

  • Alpha
  • Image
  • Date Format
  • IP Address
  • URL
  • Numeric
  • Email
  • Size
  • Min , Max
  • Unique with database etc

With this @extends('layouts.master') we can extend this master layout in any view file.

In this example layouts is a folder that is placed in resources/views available and the master file will be there. Now "master.blade.php" is a layout file.

We can use
return redirect('/')->withErrors('You can type your message here');
return redirect('/')->with('variableName', 'You can type your message here');
return redirect('/')->route('PutRouteNameHere');

You can create a constants.php page/file in config folder if does not exist. Now you can put constant variable with value here and can use with Config::get('constants.VaribleName');

Example

                                                
return [
    'ADMINEMAIL' => 'info@bestinterviewquestion.com',
];

Now we can display with

Config::get('constants.ADMINEMAIL');

You can do this in various ways. Steps are given below:-

  • Copy .htaccess file from public folder and now paste it into your root.
  • Now rename server.php file/page to index.php on your root folder.
  • Now you can remove /public word from URL and refresh the page. Now it will work.

Example

                                                

<script type="text/javascript">

    $(document).ready(function() {

       $("FORMIDORCLASS").submit(function(e){

            // FORMIDORCLASS will your your form CLASS ot ID

            e.preventDefault();

       $.ajaxSetup({

            headers: {

                 'X-CSRF-TOKEN': $('meta[name="_token"]').attr('content')

                // you have to pass in between tag

            }

    })

     var formData = $("FORMIDORCLASS").serialize();

    $.ajax({

          type: "POST",

         url: "",

         data : formData,

         success: function( response ) {

              // Write here your sucees message

         }, error: function(response) {

            // Write here your error message

         },

    });

    return false;

   });

});

</script>

Our first step should be

DB::connection()->enableQueryLog();

After our query it should be placed

$querieslog = DB::getQueryLog();

After that it shou;ld be placed

dd($querieslog)

A lot of recent Laravel interview questions were based on this information.

Example

                                                

DB::connection()->enableQueryLog();

$result = User:where(['status' => 1])->get();

$log = DB::getQueryLog();

dd($log);

request()->route()->getName()

$valiable1 = 'Best';

$valiable2 = 'Interview';

$valiable3 = 'Question';

return view('frontend.index', compact('valiable1', valiable2', valiable3'));

In you View File use can display by {{ $valiable1 }} or {{ $valiable2 }} or {{ $valiable3 }}

We have to call Facades in our controller file with this :
use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Storage;

Example

                                                

if($request->hasFile(file_name')) {
      $file = Storage::putFile('YOUR FOLDER PATH', $request->file('file_name'));
}

We have to pass protected $table = 'YOUR TABLE NAME'; in your respective Model

Example

                                                

namespace App;

use Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Model;

class Login extends Model
{
    protected $table = 'admin';
    static function logout() {  
        if(session()->flush() || session()->regenerate()) {
            return true;
        }
    }
}

  • Run this "php artisan make:rule OlympicYear"
  • After that command it generates a file app/Rules/OlympicYear.php
  • We can write rule in the passes() in OlympicYear.php generated file. It will return true or false depending on condition, which is this in our case
    public function passes($attribute, $value)
    {
    return $value >= 1896 && $value <= date('Y') && $value % 4 == 0;
    }
  • Next, we can update error message to be this:
    public function message()
    {
    return ':attribute should be a year of Olympic Games';
    }
  • Finally, we use this class in controller's store() method we have this code:
    public function store(Request $request)
    {
    $this->validate($request, ['year' => new OlympicYear]);
    }
For this you have to get value & assign value in controller file in __construct() like this.

Example

                                                

public function __construct() {       
        $this->middleware(function ($request, $next) {              
            $name = session()->get('businessinfo.name');  // get value from session
            View::share('user_name', $name);                   // set value for all View
            View::share('user_email', session()->get('businessinfo.email'));            
            return $next($request);
        });
}

1. Retrieving Data from session
session()->get('key');

2. Retrieving All session data
session()->all();

3. Remove data from session
session()->forget('key'); or session()->flush();

4. Storing Data in session
session()->put('key', 'value');

Soft delete is a laravel feature that helps When models are soft deleted, they are not actually removed from our database. Instead, a deleted_at timestamp is set on the record. To enable soft deletes for a model, we have to specify the softDelete property on the model like this.

In model we have to use namespace
use Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\SoftDeletes;

and we can use this
use SoftDeletes; in our model property.

After that when we will use delete() query then records will not remove from our database. then a deleted_at timestamp is set on the record.

It provide simpe API across a variety of different queue backends, such as Amazon SQS, Redis, or even a relational database. It also allow us to defer the processing of a time consuming task, such as sending an email. These time consuming tasks helps to speeds up web requests to our application.

You can visits here for more details : www.laravel.com

We can add multiple AND operator at in a single where() conditions as well as we can also add seprate where() for particular AND condition.

Example

                                                
DB::table('client')->where('status', '=', 1)->where('name', '=', 'bestinterviewquestion.com')->get();

DB::table('client')->where(['status' => 1, 'name' => 'bestinterviewquestion.com'])->get();

Example

                                                
DB::table('admin')
            ->join('contacts', 'admin.id', '=', 'contacts.user_id')
            ->join('orders', 'admin.id', '=', 'orders.user_id')
            ->select('users.id', 'contacts.phone', 'orders.price')
            ->get();

You can use request()->ip()

You can also use : Request::ip() but in this case we have to call namespace like this : Use Illuminate\Http\Request;

request()->route()->getActionMethod()

An ORM stands for object-relational mapper. It is very important features provided by Laravel Framework. Laravel allows us to work with database objects and relationships using an eloquent. Each table has a particular Model which are used to interact with that table in laravel application.

It has many types of relationships.

  • One To One relationships
  • One To Many relationships
  • Many To Many relationships
  • Has Many Through relationships
  • Polymorphic relationships
  • Many To Many Polymorphic relationships

For more details you can visit www.Laravel.com

Blade is very simple and powerful templating engine that is provided with Laravel. Laravel uses "Blade Template Engine".

1. For set cookie Value we have to use Cookie::put('key', 'value');

2. For get cookie Value we have to use Cookie::get('key');

3. For remove cookie Value we have to use Cookie::forget('key')

4. For Check cookie is exists or not, we have to use Cache::has('key')

We have to use the following artisan commands to enable/disable maintenance mode.

// Enable maintenance mode

php artisan down

// Disable maintenance mode

php artisan up

It is a helper function which is used to dump a variable's contents to the browser and stop the further script execution. It stands for Dump and Die.

Example

                                                

dd($array);

It is an array which contains all those fields of table which can be create directly new record in your Database table.

Example

                                                

class User extends Model {
        protected $fillable = ['username', 'password', 'phone'];
}

It is the reverse of fillable. When a guarded specifies which fields are not mass assignable.

Example

                                                

class User extends Model {
protected $guarded = ['user_type'];
}

Example

                                                

use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Auth;

$userinfo = Auth::user();

print_r($userinfo );

Yes, It supports caching like Memcached and Redis. By default, laravel is configured with file cache which is stores the serialized, cached objects in the files. Normally we can use Memcached or Redis for large projects.

{{ $username }} is simply used to display text contents but {!! $username !!} is used to display content with HTML tags if exists.

This is one of the frequently asked Laravel interview questions.

In Active Record our class directly maps to the database table. withIn Laravel 5 CRUD operations using the Active Record pattern is extremely fast. Laravel provides a feature to choose another table name but yet you’re still mapping it directly to the database table.

Please update 'default' => env('DB_CONNECTION', 'mysql'), in config/database.php. Update MySQL as a database whatever you want.

We can create all web pages of our sites to tell Google and other search engines like Bing, Yahoo etc about the organization of our site content. These search engine web crawlers read this file to more intelligently crawl our sites.

Here are the steps that helps you to create real time sitemap.xml file and these steps also helps to create dynamic XML files.
  • Firstly we have to create a route for this in your routes/web.php file
    Example
    Route::get('sitemap.xml', 'SitemapController@index')->name('sitemapxml');
  • Now you can create SitemapController.php with artisan command php artisan make:controller SitemapController
  • Now you can put this code in your controller
    public function index() {
        $page = Page::where('status', '=', 1)->get();
        return response()->view('sitemap_xml', ['page' => $page])->header('Content-Type', 'text/xml');
    }
  • Now please create a view file in resources/view/sitemap_xml.blade.php file with this code
  • Put this code in that created view file
    <?php echo '<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>'; ?>
    <urlset xmlns="http://www.sitemaps.org/schemas/sitemap/0.9"
       xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
       xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.sitemaps.org/schemas/sitemap/0.9
       http://www.sitemaps.org/schemas/sitemap/0.9/sitemap.xsd">
    @foreach ($page as $post)
       <url>
          <loc>{{ url($post->page_slug) }}</loc>
          <lastmod>{{ $post->updated_at->tz('UTC')->toAtomString() }}</lastmod>
          <priority>0.9</priority>
       </url>
    @endforeach
    </urlset>

It is a unified API across a variety of different queue back-ends. It allows you to defer the processing of a time-consuming task, such as sending an e-mail, until a later time which drastically speeds up web requests to your application.

Advantages

In Laravel, Queues are very useful for taking jobs, pieces of asynchronous work, and sending them to be performed by other processes and this is useful when making time-consuming API calls that we don’t want to make your users wait for before being served their next page.

Another advantage of using queues is that you don’t want to work the lines on the same server as your application. If your jobs involve intensive computations, then you don’t want to take risk those jobs taking down or slowing your web server.

 

This is another laravel interview questions. Answer this one as an excellent basis.

 

Please run below artisan commands step wise step.

  • php artisan config:clear
  • php artisan cache:clear
  • composer dump-autoload
  • php artisan view:clear
  • php artisan route:clear
There are vast differences between laravel 4 and laravel 5 regarding LTS, features, file structures, etc.

Laravel 4 was the one who brought significant popularity to the Laravel framework, but this version not updated anymore, and it also lacks a lot of functions released in Laravel 5.

  • Laravel 4 released May 2013 but Laravel 5 released in February 2015.
  • Laravel 5 has LTS Supports. It means the LTS version stands for Long Term Support. It implies that bugfixes for that version will be provided for two years, until the next LTS version.
  • In Laravel 5, Controllers, middleware, and requests are now grouped under the app/Http directory.
  • A new directory app/Providers replaces the app/start files from previous versions of Laravel 4.x.
  • In Laravel 5 Application language files and views have been moved to the resources directory.
  • New Artisan command route: cache to drastically speed up the registration of your ways.
  • Laravel 5 supported HTTP middleware and included authentication and CSRF "filters" have been converted to middleware but not in Laravel 4.
  • Now in Laravel 5, User registration, password reset and authentication controllers are included out of the box, as well as simple corresponding views, which are located at in resources/views/auth.
  • Laravel 5 gives a Socialite package which is an optional, Laravel 5.0+ compatible package that provides painless authentication with OAuth providers.
  • The favorite dd helper function, which dumps variable debug information, has been upgraded to use the amazing Symfony VarDumper.

In contrast to Laravel 4 to 5 version differences, which is huge, 5.x and 5.y versions are not that different. Some functions added, some updated/removed in laravel 5, but the core structure remains the same.

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