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Python Interview Questions

Python Interview Questions

A high-level, interactive and object-oriented scripting language, Python is a highly readable language that makes it ideal for beginner-level programmers.  Here we can help you to prepare for the best Python interview questions. It uses English keywords and has fewer syntactical constructions as compared to other languages. Similar to PERL and PHP, Python is processed by the interpreter at runtime. Python supports the Object-Oriented style of programming, which encapsulates code within objects.

A Quick Overview of Python

About Python
What is Python? Python is a high-level, interactive and object-oriented scripting language.
Latest Version Python 3.7.4 and released on July 8, 2019
Created By Guido van Rossum in 1990.
Written in C languages
License Python releases have also been GPL-compatible.
Official Website https://www.python.org

Key points

  • Similar to PERL and PHP, Python is processed by the interpreter at runtime. Python supports the Object-Oriented style of programming, which encapsulates code within objects.
  • Derived from other languages, such as ABC, C, C++, Modula-3, SmallTalk, Algol-68, Unix shell, and other scripting languages.
  • Python is copyrighted, and its source code is available under the GNU General Public License (GPL).
  • Supports the development of many applications, from text processing to games.
  • Works for scripting, embedded code and compiled the code.
  • Detailed

If you are looking for a job as a Python developer, we have a vast collection of Python interview questions.

Advantages

  • Extensive Support Libraries
  • Extensive Integration Features
  • Improves Programmer's Productivity
  • Platform Independent

Disadvantages

  • Weak in Mobile Computing
  • Slow Speed
Last update: 21 Oct 2019, 54 Questions and Answers

Most Frequently Asked Python Interview Questions And Answers With Examples:

A high-level, interactive and object-oriented scripting language, Python is a highly readable language that makes it ideal for beginner-level programmers. It uses English keywords and has fewer syntactical constructions as compared to other languages.

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  • Lists are mutable. Tuples are immutable.
  • Lists are slower. Tuples are faster.
  • List Syntax: list_1 = [10, ‘Chelsea’, 20]. Tuples Syntax: tup_1 = (10, ‘Chelsea’ , 20)
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The process of picking can be defined as: Pickle, which is a module, accepts an object, converts it into a string, and dumps into a file using dump function.

The process of retrieving Python objects from the stored string is called unpickling.

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Python is an interpreted language. It runs directly from the source code and converts the source code into an intermediate language. This intermediate language is translated into machine language and has to be executed.

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In Python, we can use try copy.copy () or copy.deepcopy() for copy an object.
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Everything in Python is like an object. All variables hold different references to the objects. The values of references are as per their functions. As a result, the programmer cannot change the value of the references. However, he can change the objects if they are mutable.

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A session allows the programmer to remember information from one request to another. In a flask, a session uses a signed cookie so that the user can look at the contents and modify. The programmer will be able to modify the session only if it has the secret key Flask.secret_key.

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Lambda is an anonymous expression function that is often used as an inline function. Its form does not have a statement as it is only used to make new functional objects and then return them at the runtime.

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The module is a way to structure a program. Each Python program is a module, which imports other modules such as objects and attributes. The entire folder of the Python program is a package of modules. A package can have both modules or subfolders.

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If you assign a new value to a variable anywhere within the function's body, it is assumed to be local. The variables that are referenced inside a function are known as global.

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In order to share global variables across different modules within a single program, you need to create a special module. After that, just import the config module in all of the modules of your application. This will make the module available as a global variable across all the modules.

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Indexing Python sequences in both positive and negative numbers are possible. For the positive index, 0 is the first index, 1 is the second index and so forth. For the negative index, (-1) is the last index and (-2) is the second last index and so forth.

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Pass means where there is a no-operation Python statement. It is just a placeholder in a compound statement where nothing needs can be written. The continue makes the loop to resume from the next iteration.

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A Flask is a micro web framework for Python based on the "Werkzeug, Jinja 2 and good intentions". Werkzeug and jingja are its dependencies. Because a Flask is part of the micro-framework, it has little or no dependencies on the external libraries. A Flask also makes the framework light while taking little dependency and gives fewer security bugs.

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Python does not support the unary operators; rather, it supports augmented assignment operators.

The arithmetic operators it supports are as follows-
  • Addition- '+'
  • Subtraction- '-'
  • Multiplication- '*'
  • Division- '/:
  • Modulo division- '%'
  • Power of- '**'
  • Floor div- '//'
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In order to make the Python coding more relatable, PEP 8 is the coding convention. It is also a set of recommendations that are used to make the codes executable and modular.

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Method resolution order or MRO refers to when one class inherits from multiple classes. The class that gets inherited is the parent class and the class that inherits is the child class. It also refers to the order where the base class is searched while executing the method.

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This function returns to a printable presentation for the given object. It takes a single object & its syntax is repr(obj). The function repr computes all the formal string representation for the given object in Python.

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Both lists and arrays in Python can store the data in the same way.
The difference is-

Array List
An array can hold single data type elements. Lists in Python can hold any type of data element.
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It refers to the method which adds a certain value to the class. It can’t be initiated by the user rather only occurs when an internal action takes charge. In python, the built-in classes define a number of magic methods.

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Repr() Str()
It is unambiguous It is readable
It can be implemented for any class Implement in case of the string version
Used to compute official Used to compute informally
It displays object Displays string representations
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The entity that changes the data types from one form to another is known as typecasting. In programming languages, it is used to make sure the variables are processed in the correct sequence by the function.

E.g., while converting an integer to string.

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  • Extensive Support Libraries
  • Extensive Integration Features
  • Improves Programmer's Productivity
  • Platform Independent
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The built-in method which decides the types of the variable at the program runtime is known as type() in Python. When a single argument is passed through it, then it returns given object type. When 3 arguments pass through this, then it returns a new object type.

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Guido Van Rossum

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  • Similar to PERL and PHP, Python is processed by the interpreter at runtime. Python supports Object-Oriented style of programming, which encapsulates code within objects.
  • Derived from other languages, such as ABC, C, C++, Modula-3, SmallTalk, Algol-68, Unix shell, and other scripting languages.
  • Python is copyrighted, and its source code is available under the GNU General Public License (GPL).
  • Supports the development of many applications, from text processing to games.
  • Works for scripting, embedded code and compiled the code.
  • Detailed
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In total, there are 33 keywords in Python. It is important to know them all in order to know about their use so we can utilize them. In additon, while we are naming a variable, the name cannot be matched with the keywords. This is another reason to know all the keywords.

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Memory is managed by the private heap space. All objects and data structures are located in a private heap, and the programmer has no access to it. Only the interpreter has access. Python memory manager allocates heap space for objects. The programmer is given access to some tools for coding by the core API. The inbuilt garbage collector recycles the unused memory and frees up the memory to make it available for the heap space.

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For performing Static Analysis, PyChecker is a tool that detects the bugs in source code and warns the programmer about the style and complexity. Pylint is another tool that authenticates whether the module meets the coding standard.

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Decorators are specific changes that we make in syntax to alter functions.

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Dict and List are syntax constructions that ease the creation of a Dictionary or List based on iterables.

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In Python, every name has a place where it lives and can be tied to. This is called a namespace. A namespace is like a box where a name is mapped with the object. Whenever the variable is searched, this box will also be searched in order to find the corresponding object.

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A Flask is a microframework build for small applications with more straightforward requirements. Flask comes ready to use.

Pyramids are built for larger applications. They provide flexibility and allow the developer to use the right tools for their projects. The developer is free to choose the database, templating style, URL structure, and more. Pyramids is configurable.

Similar to Pyramids, Django can be used for larger applications. It includes an ORM.

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A thread is a lightweight process. Multithreading allows the programmer to execute multiple threads in one go. The Global Interpreter Lock ensures that a single thread performs at a given time. A thread holds the GIL and does some work before passing it on to the next thread. This looks like parallel execution, but actually, it is just threading taking turns at the CPU.

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Python supported 5 data types.

  • Numbers
  • String
  • Tuple
  • Dictionary
  • List
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from random import shuffle

x = ['My', 'Singh', 'Hello', 'India']

shuffle(x)

print(x)

The output of the following code is as below.

['Singh', 'India', 'Hello', 'My']

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import random
random.random

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  • Select the URL you want to scrap
  • Inspect the page
  • Select data you want to extract
  • Write the codes and run them

Once the data is extracted store the data in any required format

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The way of using the operating system dependent functionalities is an OS module. Through this function, the interface is provided with the underlying operating system for which Python is running on.

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DeQue module is a segment of the collection library that has a feature of addition and removal of the elements from their respective ends.

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It is a Python library used to optimize, define, and execute the mathematical expressions including multidimensional arrays.

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In order to get the ASCII values in Python, you have to type a program. The function here will get the int value of char. This program must be in ord function() to return the value.

Example

                                                    

>>> ord('a')

97

>>> chr(97)

'a'

>>> chr(ord('a') + 3)

'd'

>>>

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There are two categories of ‘types’ present in Python, which is mutable and immutable.

Mutable built-in types
  • List
  • Dictionary
  • Set
Immutable built-in type
  • String
  • Number
  • Tuple
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Python easily supports the formatting for any value into a string which may contain a number of complex expressions. The utility includes pushing the values with the help of % format specifier into a string.
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In Python '//' operator is a floor Division operator. It is used to distinguish operands with their result as quotient representing the digits before the decimal point.

E.g. 10//5=2
10.5//5.0=2.0

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Yes, they are SciPy, IPython, Numpy, Scikit libraries.
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Debugging in Python can be done by utilizing the inbuilt module pdb. This module actually defines the interactive source code debugger for all the Python programs.
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The operators which are used to validate the membership of any assigned value are known as membership operators. It actually tests for strings, lists, and tuples
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In Python, it is used for the determination of any current execution in accordance with the next statement. A break is used in for and while loops.
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Yes, as break keyword is used to break the recent or current execution, the continue keyword is used to proceed with the execution without any break.
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Python iterators are used to traverse the elements or any collection for the specific implementation. In Python, they also regulate the iterator protocol and contain specific values.

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