Technology Interview Questions and Answers

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Last update: 18 Nov 2020, 20 Questions

We bring you a collection of the essential technology interview questions. This is best suited for college freshers and inexperienced professionals just getting into the field of technology. If you're fresher hunting for a job in the Technology Domain, you have landed on the right page!

Our list consists of the most frequently asked technology interview questions and answers, from various domains like C, C++, Java, Data Structures & Algorithms. These are the very core topics of the technology domain, which can help a fresher get an edge over others competing for the same job position. We aim to drive clarity within you by helping you understand the most critical programming world concepts, regardless of the tech stack you choose to pursue.

Most Frequently Asked Information technology interview questions

Here in this article, we will be listing frequently asked Technology Interview Questions and Answers with the belief that they will be helpful for you to gain higher marks. Also, to let you know that this article has been written under the guidance of industry professionals and covered all the current competencies.

1. What is the difference between a JDK and a JVM?
Stands for Java Development Kit. Stands for Java Virtual Machine.
This is a software development kit used for developing applications in Java. It is used for executing Java Byte code while also providing an environment for its execution.
This is platform dependent. This is platform-independent.
It contains tools relevant for the development, debugging, and monitoring of Java Code. This does not include any tools.
This is a superset of JRE. This is a subset of JRE.
This helps developers to develop applications that can be executed by the JVM and the JRE. This is the component used for executing the source code.
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2. What is the difference between a string and an array?
Array String
This is a sequential collection of elements having the same data type. This is a sequence of characters presented as a single data type.
Elements of the array are stored in a continuous manner to optimize memory locations space. Strings can be stored in any manner.
It can store floats, integers, doubles, etc. Strings can only hold char data types.
Arrays are mutable, i.e., values can be changed later on. Strings are immutable, i.e., values cannot be changed once created.
It can be one or two dimensional. It is only two dimensional.
The length of an array once created is fixed. The length of a string can be changed later on.
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3. Is a default case necessary in a switch statement? No, it is not vital that you have a default case in a switch statement. Although, if no case in your switch is satisfied, the default case can be useful. So, if you're unsure about the outcome, it's advised that you mention a default case.
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4. What is the difference between method overriding and overloading?
Method Overloading Method Overriding
In this case, all the parameters must be changed. In this case, all the parameters must be the same.
This occurs within a class. This occurs between two classes having an inheritance relationship.
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5. What is the difference between white box, black box, and gray box testing?
Black Box Testing White Box Testing Grey Box Testing
This is also known as functional testing, data-driven testing, and closed-box testing. Also known as structural testing, precise box testing, code-based testing, and transparent testing. Also known as translucent testing.
It is not suited for algorithm testing. It is perfectly suitable and recommended for algorithm testing. Not considered for algorithm testing.
This kind of testing is based on a trial and error system as the tester does not have coding knowledge. This type of testing takes an approach of verifying the system boundaries and data domains inherent in the software. If the tester has enough knowledge of coding, the way forward is validation data domains and internal system boundaries of the software.
The testing space of tables for inputs is the largest among all the other testing processes. The testing space of tables for inputs is less as compared to Black Box testing. The testing space of tables for inputs is the least.
In this, the user, tester, and developer can be a part of the testing process. In this, only the tester and developer can be a part of the testing process. In this, the user, tester, and developer are part of the testing process.
Here, the basis of testing is the external behavior of the software. Here the basis of testing is purely internal behavior of the software. Here the testing is based on high-level databases and data flow diagrams.
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6. What is the difference between verification and validation?

Here is the technical difference between verification and validation:

This comprises checking the documents, codes, designs, and programs. This comprises the testing and checking of the actual product.
This is basically static testing. This is dynamic testing.
This does not include the process of executing codes. This does include the process of executing codes.
It contains various types, such as reviews, walkthroughs, desk-checking, and inspections. It includes three types of processes, namely, non-functional testing, Black Box Testing, and White Box Testing.
This process examines whether a software conforms to specifications or not. This process examines whether the software meets the expectations and requirements of a user.
It is used to find bugs in the early stage of inspection in any software. Used to find out bugs not found by the process of verification.

Note: The name Google was created accidentally due to spelling. The founders were actually going for the name Googol! Here's our complete list of information technology interview questions to help you get a job in the technology sector.

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7. What are local variables?

A local variable is a kind of variable that is effective only within the function it is defined. When the function has finished its course of execution, the local variables no longer exist.

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8. What is the % operator?

This is the modulus operator, and it gives the remainder after the division of two integers.



var A= 4
var B= 2

A%B = 0

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9. How is final different from finally and finalize()?
Final Finally() Finalize()
This is technically a keyword. This is technically a block. This is technically a protected method.
Its usage is applying restrictions on class, variable, and methods. This is used for both exception handling, try and catch blocks. This is only called by the garbage collector before an object is being removed.
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10. What is the difference between a break statement and a continue statement?
Break Statement Continue Statement
This is used for breaking a loop or iteration. This is used for continuing a loop or iteration.
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11. Is it possible to execute code even after the program exits the main() function?

Well, in both C & C++, the functions which are registered using the at exit() function can be called after main() returns. In C++, the static destructors can be called even after the main() function has been called.

Note: Did you know that the C language was not called that since its inception. This is the evolution of the C language:

ALGO -> BCPL -> B -> Tradition C -> K&R C -> ANSI C -> ANSI/ISO C -> C99. Well, here is the list of information technology interview questions and answers to help you get a grasp on the latest trends in this field.

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12. What is the difference between ++var and var++?
++var var++
This will first increment the value of the variable then process it. It will first process the variable then increment its value.
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13. What is meant by "bit masking"?

Bit masking is the process of selecting which bits to keep and which bits to show. This is done using the AND, OR, and XOR operators, which mask the values which you want to clear and explain the benefits you want to show.

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14. What is a static function?

A static function is a function that has a scope limited to an object file. This means these functions are visible to other functions in the same file or same translation unit.


static int fun(void)
    printf("This is a static function ");

Note: A static member function can not be declared as a const, volatile, or const volatile. Download our complete list of information technology interview questions and answers to read it offline in the form of a PDF document.

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15. When is a switch statement better than multiple if statements?

The switch statement is a better option than multiple if statements when you are just giving the input directly without actually doing any condition checking in the statements.

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16. What is data structure?

A data structure is a specific format for the organization, processing, retrieving, and storage of data.

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17. What is a spanning Tree?

In the domain of Data Algorithms, a spanning tree T is basically a subgraph of an undirected graph G that is a tree that includes all of the vertices of G(the undirected graph), with the minimum possible number of edges.

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18. What are the advantages of DBMS?

Here are the advantages of having a Database Management System (DBMS):

  • Eradicating Data Redundancy by having a global database for storing all segments of data.
  • Sharing of Data among multiple users as and when required.
  • Maintaining Data Integrity, Accuracy, and Consistency throughout the database.
  • Data Security & Privacy for ensuring that the correct amount of data is visible only to any user as per authorization.
  • Automatic Backup and Recovery of Data periodically so that the manual version of the same is not required, thus saving resources and time.
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19. What is normalization?

Normalization is the process used in Databases for structuring a relational database. This is in accordance with a series of standard or default forms with the sole purpose of reducing data redundancy while also improving data efficiency and integrity.

Note: Database Normalization was first proposed by Edgar F. Codd as a small section in his relational model of databases. It has now evolved as a very crucial aspect of driving efficiency in enterprise database models. Get a job in this field by reading answers to the most commonly asked information technology interview questions.

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20. What is BCNF (Boyce-Codd Normal Form)?

The Boyce-Codd Normal Form is a type of Data Normalization whose goal is to increase the data integrity by adequately organizing the columns and tables within a relational database.

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