What do you mean by Composer?
In PHP, a Composer is a tool which is used to manage application dependency. It allows us to declare the libraries of our project depends on and it will maintain all install & update them for you. It is not a package manager but it deals with "packages" or libraries, it manages them on a project basis, installing them in a directory inside our project.
The composer does not install anything globally by default. Laravel uses Composer to manage its dependencies. So, before using Laravel, make sure that you have to installed Composer on your system or server.
Click here to download If you don't have a composer.
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Composer is both a package dependency manager and a dynamic class loader
As a package manager it lets you define dependencies on third party packages in your application. Composer is responsible of downloading packages and copying to vendor folder. These 3rd party packages have to be packaged themselves with composer
As a dynamic class loader it lets you to load dynamically classes from packages installed on your application