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Java 8 Interview Questions

Java 8 Interview Questions

An Overview of JAVA 8

JAVA is an open-source object-oriented programming language which is secure and robust. JAVA is language that can run on all the platforms which support JAVA without recompilation. More than 3 billion devices run on Java. JAVA is used for developing Mobile applications, Desktop applications, Web servers, and application servers etc.JAVA was developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems now ORACLE in the year 1995.

The Java 8 interview questions we are mentioning below will help you to gain enough of the knowledge about Fortran.

What is JAVA 8?

JAVA 8 is one of the versions of JAVA programming language which was released on March 18, 2014. Java8 provides supports for functional programming, new JavaScript engine Nashorn, new APIs for the date and time manipulation, new streaming API, etc. Now the coding has become simple.

All your questions related to team leader will be answered in the Java 8 interview Questions and answers mentioned below

Advantages Of Java 8

  • Introduction of Lambda Expression- first step to functional programming
  • New stream API to supports pipeline processing.
  • Optional − Emphasis on handling null values properly.
  • Nashorn Engine- Provides better performance than Rhino javascript engine.

Latest Version

The latest version of JAVA is Java11 which was released on 25th Sep 2018.

Last update: 01 Apr 2019, 24 Questions and Answers

Most Frequently Asked Java 8 Interview Questions And Answers With Examples:

New features introduced in Java 8 are:-
  • Introduction of Lambda Expression- first step to functional programming
  • New stream API to support pipeline processing.
  • Optional − Emphasis on handling null values properly.
  • Nashorn Engine- Provides better performance than Rhino javascript engine.
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Lamba expression is considered as the most significant feature of Java8. A Lambda expression provides functional programming, and that has simplified the code to a great extent. A lambda expression is fundamentally a function which can be created without belonging to any class.

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Functional interfaces are those interfaces that have a single functionality.

Example

                                                    
  • CompareTo--- This interface is only for the comparison purpose.
  • Function<t,r>---this interface accepts only one argument and gives the result.
  • <t>--This interface means that an object is tested to be either true or false.
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Method references support in pointing to the methods by their names. A method reference is denoted by using "::" symbol. A method reference is used to indicate the following methods

  • Static methods
  • Instance methods
  • Constructors using new operator (TreeSet::new)

This is a fundamental question in java 8 interview questions.

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The valueOf() method converts data into human-readable form.So String valueOf() will return the string representation of the value. The valueOf() method is a static method.

  • String valueOf(inum)--this syntax will return the string representation of the integer inum.
  • String.valueOf(data, 0, 5)-- This syntax will return the string representation of the character Array 0 to 5
  • String.valueOf(fNum) --this syntax will return the string representation of the float fNum
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In java there a NullPointerException which can crash the code. It is complicated to remove the null checks from the code. Java 8 introduced Optional class in java. util package. Use of Optional class results in clean code without null checks. By using the Optional class, the programmer can specify the other value or other code to return. This makes the code more readable.

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The default method implementation was introduced by Java 8 so that the old interfaces can use the lambda expression without implementing the methods in the implementation class.

Example

                                                    

Syntax:-

public interface interview {

        default void print() {

System.out.println("Welcome Bestinterviewquestion.com");

             }

    }

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The syntax for the Lambda expression is:-

parameter -> expression body

Characteristics of the Lambda Expression:-
  • No need to declare the parameter type as the compiler will get the standard by the value of the parameter.
  • For the multiple parameters parenthesis has to be declared, but for the simple parameter, parenthesis need not be declared.
  • If a contains only a single parameter, then there is no need of curly braces.

This is a very critical question in Java 8 interview questions.

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Along with Java 8, a new improved engine Nashorn was introduced. Nashorn gives very high performance because it straightaway compiles the program code in the memory and then passes the bytecode to JVM. It uses the invoke dynamics feature of Java 7 to improve the performance.

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S.no Collection API Stream API
1. Collection API is for storing the data in the different kinds of data structures. Stream API is not a data structure; it is used for computation of the data on the big set of objects
2. A finite number of elements can be stored in a data structure An infinite number of features can be stored
3. Consumption of elements is multiple times Consumption of elements is only once.
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A Spliterator is a type of Java8 Iterator in java. util package that traverses and partitions the elements of a source in Java into another Spliterator. A source can be a collection or an IO channel or a generator function

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Java 8 introduced a command tool jjs for the Nashorn to execute the javascript program codes at the console.

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The Stream API is used to process a group of objects. A stream is a series of objects which supports different methods that can be pipelined to produce the expected result.

The features of the stream are –
  • A stream takes the input from the Collections, an Arrays or the I/O channels.
  • Streams don’t alter the original data structure; they only give the result according to the pipelined methods.
  • Each intermediate operation is executed in a lazy manner, and as a result, it returns a stream. Hence various intermediate processes can be pipelined. The terminal operations remain at the end of the pipelining process. It replaces the final value, and the pipeline is terminated.
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S.no Intermediate Terminal
1. The intermediate operation produces stream pipelining Terminal operation terminate the pipeline
2. Intermediate operations can be chained multiple times on a stream Terminal operations cannot be chained various times.
3. Intermediate operations cannot be evaluated independently; it needs a terminal operation for evaluation. Terminal Operations can be evaluated independently.
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S.no Map Flat map
1. For one input value, it gives one output value For one input value,e it produces the arbitrary number
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Stream Pipelining is done by dividing the operations which can happen on the flow into two categories. The first is Intermediate operations and the second is Terminal operations. The common operations return the stream itself so that the result can be pipelined. The terminal operations remain at the end of the pipelining operation. It returns the final value, and the pipeline is terminated.

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Random random = new Random();
random.ints().limit(15).forEach(System.out::println);

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The code to print count of empty strings in Java 8 is:-

List strings = Arrays.asList("abc", "", "bc", "efg", "abcd","", "jkl");

//get a count of empty string

long count = strings.p

arallelStream().filter(string -> string.isEmpty()).count();

Point to be noted: Go through this Q&A very thoroughly as this is one of the most

asked java 8 interview questions.

Example

                                                    
List<String>strings = Arrays.asList("abc", "", "bc", "efg", "abcd","", "jkl");
int count = strings.stream().filter(string −> string.isEmpty()).count();
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Collectors perform the reduction operations. It combines the result of the processing ongoing on the elements of the stream like collecting the elements into collections, summarizing the elements according to the different criteria. Collectors return the list or a string. As a result, the readability is increased. Static import used here is static import java.util.stream.Collectors.*;

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In new data-time API, one of the class is Local Date-Time API where there is no problem of handling of the time-zones. Programmers use this API where time zones are not required. Local Date-Time API is defined in the package java.time

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The Chrono unit was added in Java 8 to replace those integer value that was used in old API to represent the month, day, year, etc. unit is defined in the java.time.temporal.ChronoUnit

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