Scala Interview Questions
Best Scala Interview Questions And Answers
Here are some of the points here Scala scores over other programming languages:
- Functional Plus OOP language.
- Allows developers to write reactive apps.
- Runs on JVM.
- Cross compatible with Java
- Cleaner, elegant and more concise code
|1.||Includes implicit||Includes widening and casting|
|2.||variables immutable||variables mutable by default|
|3.||Pattern matching||Switch statements|
|4.||Allows related type to be defined as one file||Does not allow related types to be described in one file|
Scala Map is a collection of elements in pairs of key and values, where values can be retrieved using keys. Values are not unique, but the keys are unique. Scala supports two types of maps - mutable and immutable. By default, the language supports the immutable map. You can create a Scala map in two ways – by using comma separated pairs or by rocket operator.
Akka is a runtime and toolkit for building concurrent, fault-tolerant and distributed applications on Java Virtual Machine. Though Akka is written in Scala, it contains language bindings for both Scala and Java. Its approach to handling concurrency is built on Actor Model.
Type Interface is one of the unique features in Scala that help reduce the amount of coding for developers. Type Interface may be defined as the process used by the compiler to determine the type of value, variable, or return value of a function - based on the statement in which they are found.
|1.||Refers to value||Refers to variable|
|2.||Is constant||Is changeable|
|3.||Immutable declaration of variables||Mutable declaration of a variable|
|4.||Cannot reassign values once created||Reassign values once its created|
|1.||Defined in Package||Defined in a class|
|2.||Can be accessed without objects||Cannot be used without an object|
Option in Scala is a container that holds zero or one element of a specific type. It represents values that either exist or do not exist. The Option is used to wrap missing values and is a replacement to return null values. This question has the most likelihood of being asked in Scala interview questions for experienced professionals.
REPL in Scala, or Read-Evaluate-Print Loop, is pronounced as ‘ripple.’ It acts as an Interpreter for executing code from the command prompt. This is the reason REPL is called as Scala Command Line Interface (CLI).
The key use of REPL is to develop and test snippets of code for practice purposes. It is useful for Beginner developers to practice low-level programs.
A trait in Scala is a unique kind of Class that enables developers to use multiple inheritances. Although a trait can extend to only one class, a class can have many traits. However, unlike classes in Scala, you cannot instantiate traits.
Traits are often used when the user requires dependency injection (DI). In Scala, you do not have annotations or special packages for import. You must initialize the class with trait and dependency gets injected.
There are times when programmers have to write functions that are recursive, where the critical problem that such functions eat up the entire allocated stack space. To overcome this challenge, Scala provides a “tail recursion” mechanism.
This mechanism optimizes recursive functions so that they do not create new stack space and use the existing stack space.
|1.||The sequential and mutable data structure||The recursive and immutable data structure|
|3.||Fixed size||Variable size|
Streams are the type of lazy collections, or lazy lists, that get created when starting an element and then generate recursively using the same parts. This feature enhances program performance. Streams are similar to Lists, except that in Streams, the items get added only after being accessed.
A Monad can be described as an object that wraps another object. In Scala, a class object is covered with a monad. Monads wrap objects and offer two operations - Identity through units, and bind through flatMap.
A Monad determines the best way to apply the program to underlying objects. A lot of recent Scala interview questions were based on this information.
There are four types of identifiers:
- Alphanumeric Identifiers: Contain letters, digits, and underscores. Example - myVal.
- Operator Identifiers: Contain operator characters. Example - +
- Mixed Identifiers: Contains underscore and an operator identifier. Example - myVar
- Literal Identifiers: Contain arbitrary string in backticks(`). Example `class.`
A lambda in Scala is an expression that does not reference value or a variable. Instead, it references an anonymous function. Scala supports lambda expressions in different forms. Developers use lambda expressions because of the convenience, decoupling, and reusability that it provides.
Functions in Scala are first-class values. This means that a function can be passed as a parameter or returned as a result. The Higher-order functions in Scala take other purposes as parameters and return a role as a result. This functionality provides flexibility in composing programs.
A data type in Scala instructs the compiler about kind of value that needs to be stored in a specific location. In Scala, there are no primitive data types because everything in Scala is treated as an object.
Here are the data types:
Operators in Scala are symbols that operate on values. These values are called operands. Operators are essential elements of any programming language, as they allow the developers to perform various types of activities on operands.
This is one of the frequently asked Scala interview questions.
Scala has the following operators:
- Arithmetic Operators
- Relational Operators
- Logical Operators
- Assignment Operators
- Bitwise Operators
The foldLeft method in Scala is a member of the TraversableOnce trait. Using this method is essential in a recursive function and helps the developers prevent stack-overflow exceptions. This method also allows the developers to specify an initial value.
The problem of Multiple inheritances in Scala is referred to as the diamond problem. This problem occurs when a Class extends more than one Traits of the same method definition. The inability to decide on the best implementation method to choose leads to Diamond Problem. In Scala, the diamond problem gets resolved through the mechanism of Traits and the class linearization rules.
Scala, is a general purpose, hybrid functional programming language. Integrating the features of other technical and object-oriented languages, Scala is designed to run on JVM. Scala provides lightweight syntax that helps developers define anonymous functions. Scala allows developers to write general programming patterns efficiently by reducing the number of lines. This language also empowers the developers to write immutable codes, thus making it easy to apply parallelism and concurrency.
The unique feature that makes Scala standout from the rest is its ability to scale and expand. It has almost eliminated the common problems associated with other popular languages.
Why it is used?
Scala can be used in many ways, including in android apps, desktop apps, data processing, front-end and back-ends of web applications, Hadoop programs, big data, and data analysis, data streaming, etc.